AUTHOR(S): Cummings C, Langdown I, Hart T with Lubuva J & Kisela H
ABSTRACT: In less developed countries, more than half of all urban residents live in smaller cities of one million inhabitants or less which face specific development challenges, often having weaker political autonomy and more limited financial resources than the capital. As the populations of these smaller cities continue to rise, achieving universal sanitation is as urgent as ever. Looking across the whole sanitation chain, the authors find that the first stage - household containment - is often missing, especially in informal settlements. This publications examines how cities in the 19th and 20th centuries improved their sanitation systems, and uses lessons from those examples to suggest how progress can be achieved in Tanzania and elsewhere.